The holy land of wise scholars, men of valour and courage, blessed with the green valleys, hills and hillocks and inhabited by people known for innovative farming was divided, for the formation of Krishnagiri district, carved out of Dharmapuri district as 30th district of Tamil Nadu.
‘Krishna’ refers to ‘black’ and ‘giri’ refers to ‘hill’. This district is gifted with black granite hillocks and named as “krishnagiri”. The region came under the rule of Krishna Deva Raya and hence it might have been named after this king.
Krishnagiri district is bounded by Vellore and Thiruvannamalai districts in the East, Karnataka state in the west, State of Andhra Pradesh in the North Dharmapuri District in the south. Its area is 5143 Sq. Kms. This district is elevated from 300m to 1400m above the mean sea level. It is located between 11º 12’N to 12º 49’N Latitude,77º 27’E to 78º 38’E Longitude.
Eastern part of the district experiences hot climate and Western part has a contrasting cold climate. The average rainfall is 830 mm per annum. March – June is summer season. July – November is Rainy Season and between December – February winter prevails. Three languages namely Tamil, Telugu and Kannada are predominantly spoken in this district. Major religions are Hindu, Islam and Christianity. This district stands as an ideal exhibit of National integration and religious harmony. The society exhibit the confluence of different languages and religions.
|Density of Population per Sq. Km.||370|
|Infant Mortality Rate||19.5|
|Literacy rate Men||79.65%|
|Literacy rate Women||64.86%|
Tribal like ‘Irular’ live in the forest of Denkanikottai. As they are away from towns they do not lose their identity and individuality. There people are skilled in tree climbing, honey collection and protecting themselves from wild animals.
This district is connected by Prime Minister’s Golden Rectangle Project executed by National Highways Authority of India. This district has a network of National Highways converging.
- NH-7 (Kanyakumari-Kashmir)
- NH-46 (Chennai-Bangalore)
- NH-66 (Pondicherry-Bangalore)
- NH-207 (Sarjapur-Bagalur-Hosur)
- NH-219 (Krishnagiri-Kuppam)
Apart from this state highways and district highways are linking almost all the towns and villages of the district. Four National highways converge at the Head Quarters of this district is unique.
People of Krishnagiri District belong to various racial groups. People from Kashmir, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andra have settled in this District. Hence it can be rightly called a Cosmopolitan society. Ancient Art & Culture is preserved and maintained by inhabitants. The major entertainment for rural folk form the ‘Street Play’ (theru koothu) and ‘Sevai Attam’.
The important crops of Krishnagiri District are Paddy, Maize, Ragi, Banana, Sugarcane, Cotton, Tamarind, Coconut, Mango, Groundnut, Vegetables and Flowers. The district has an excellent scope for agri business. Regional Agricultural Research Center of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University is functioning efficiently at Paiyur in Kaveripattinam union since 1973 AD. This center is functioning in 18.5 hec. of land. It helps the peasants to develop and adopt the modern technique of cultivation. It has developed hybrid seeds by research which yields more tonnage and good quality.
Krishnagiri District is more suitable for cultivation of Horticulture crops. Other Plantation crops, medicinal plants, Fruits, Vegetables, Spices, and flowers are grown well by way of its moderate climate, high altitude and fertility of the soil.
5069 acres of land is under mulberry cultivation in Krishnagiri District. This has the employment opportunity for about 24,345 persons at the rate of 5 per acre. Training in Mulberry farming, Rearing Silk Worms is done through a large network of Govt. Departmental Institutions of Sericulture such as Silk quality development farms 75, Govt. Sericulture training center 1, Govt. Sericulture Farm 1 Base seedlings (grain age) development farms 9, Govt. Bi-voltine grain age centers 5, Govt. Cocoon markets 5, Silk Reeling Unit 1, Silk Twisting unit 1, Technical support and service center for rearing silk worm 17, with the above maintained facilities sericulture industry has good scope in this district.
Krishnagiri is one among the districts of Tamil Nadu, which with natural resources having 2,024 Sq. Kms of forest cover is its unique feature. The hill ranges of this district are called by the name ‘Melagiri’. The major type of forest seen here are Tropical, Deciduous forests, thorny shrubs and bamboo forest. Dense forest cover Denkanikottai region. The other region contains shrubs, hills and hillocks with bushes.
FLORA AND FAUNA
The major wild animals include Elephants, Sambar, Spotted Deer, Gaur, Wild boar, Panther etc. The forest area of Denkanikottai Taluk forms the prime elephant habitat with lot of bamboos and this area constitutes the Cauvery elephant reserve, which is constituted over and area of about 450 Sq. Kms. The bird population is also attractive with beautiful bird like Paradise flycatcher. Big lakes in Anchetti and Hosur areas also attract large number of migratory birds like Painted storks, Teals etc. Apart from these birds and mammals, there are variety of butterflies, giant spiders etc. that are coming under endangered list. Kodakkarai shoal forest in Denkanikottai Taluk is known for large scale migratory butterflies during a particular season then one can observe thousands of migratory butterflies passing through this forest like a passing cloud.
The district is a paradise for natural lovers. The flora include variety of timber trees like Rose wood, Teak, Sandal etc. Hundereds of medicinal herbs, minor forest plants like nelli, kadukkai, cheekai, pungam etc. The following trees like ‘Charakkonnai’ (‘Cassia histula’). Since pungam trees are found in abundance in this forest pungam oil is extracted from this seeds of this tress which is a non pollutant Bio-fuel.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF NATURAL VEGETATION
The Vast forest resources contains Sandal, Teak, Rose Wood and Bamboo. The timber from these trees has great demand for structural works, House construction, Ship buildings, Paper and pulp manufacture, Pencil and Ply wood Industry. Those they contribute towards national income. Growing nursery for herbs and medicinal plants, extraction sandal wood oil for perfumery is the major contribution for the industrial growth in Krishnagiri District. Tribal are benefited by the forest products like bamboo rice and honey which supplement their food.
MINERALS AND INDUSTRIES
Paradise is the most popular multi coloured granite available in Krishnagiri. Black granite is available in Hosur and Denkanikottai. Granite processing units, which make slabs of granite, finished and decorated beautifully is located mainly in Hosur surroundings. The multi coloured paradise slabs are being exported to America, England, Australia and some other European countries in large quantities. This industry is flourishing with the uninterrupted supply of electricity and availability of raw material and land at cheaper rates. A variety of quartz stones from Denkanikottai and White metal called Limestone from Uthangarai are mined.
The main rivers that flow across the district are Kaveri and South Pennar Kaveri enters the district from South West in Denkanikottai taluk and exists in South West direction. It forms a waterfalls at Hokenakkal and joins Mettur Dam. South Pennar originates in Nandidurg of Karnataka and flows through Hosur, Krishnagiri and Uthangari Taluks. Vanniyar and Markanda rivers join this South Pennar.
Krishnagiri Reservoir Project, Shoolagiri-Chinnar Reservoir, Thangarai Reservoir, Pambar Reservoir, Kelevarapalli Reservoir Project and Baarur Tank are the sources of irrigation for our district. By all these water reservoirs 18,965 Hec. of land is irrigated.
PLACES OF WORSHIP
Arulmigu ‘Penneswarar Moorthy’ temple, ‘ Lakshminarayana’ temple of Krishnagiri, ‘Kundeeswarar’ temple of Chinna Kothur, ‘Angalamman’ temple of Kaveripattinam, ‘Balamurugan’ temple of Jagadevi, ‘Chandra choodeswarar’ temple of Hosur, ‘Bettaraya Swamy’ Temple of Denkanikottai are few among the holy places of this Krishnagiri District. Stone inscription reveal that these temples were built during Chola and Vijaya Nagar periods. The Holy Dharga of Denkanikottai, The Sacred Heart Church of Krishnagiri are other popular sacred places in this district.